ROF’s La Gazza Ladra Sparks Controversy

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Rossini Opera Festival 2007

If ever there was an opera production that put the words “cultural divide” in neon lights, the Rossini Opera Festival’s 2007 production of La Gazza Ladra is it. The striking differences in opinions between Italian opera critics and their English counterparts were planted front and center.

These diverse viewpoints were directly linked to Damiano Michieletto’s direction and Paolo Fantin’s sets whose eagerness to exceed the textual boundaries of Rossini’s most respected opera semiseria ignited the debate. Hugh Canning’s comments in Opera, November, 2007, boiled over the operatic cauldron in total disapprobation. “They (ROF) could also hardly have done worse than engage a young director with ‘ideas’ about La Gazza Ladra, staged as an immigrant’s nightmare…The genius responsible for transforming Rossini’s domestic semiseria into a searing indictment of a police state and implacable judiciary was Damiano Michieletto.” Even as late as November, 2008, David Blewitt in Opera referred to ROF’s new productions in 2007, as, “two concept productions of unmitigated awfulness,” — the other disappointment being Rossini’s Otello.

Stephen Hastings’s perspective in Opera News November, 2007, touched on some of the ideas Italian critics voiced about the work. “The director, Damiano Michieletto, aided by scenographer Paolo Fantin, proved…adept at matching sound and movement, offering a number of striking visual effects (including a stage flooded by rain in Act 11).” In fact, the Italian critics were completely enamored by Michieletto’s and Fantin’s approach which cast a darker hue over the opera’s story than past productions had done.

Claudio Salvi, in Il Messaggero, on August 12th, 2007, said about the first performance, “In a festival which is now basing all its reason for being on modern directors and on young talented casts, the traditionalists have found it difficult to integrate their melomanical beliefs with Damiano Michieletto’s innovative and original direction, and for Pesaro’s new course of action.” Yet, Salvi believed this dreamlike interpretation of La Gazza Ladra worthy of ROF’s fame and as one of the best productions seen at ROF in the last few years. For having bet on this young director and his talented cast, this production represents a kind of awakening from the dark and shows a good dose of courage.


Ivana Baldassarri in the Il Resto del Carlino , on August 12, 2007, noted two significant changes to the plot: one in the opera’s locale from country inn to luxury hotel and the other, transforming the thieving magpie into a young girl who in a bad dream becomes the thief. But the story on the stage still follows the same outline as in Giovanni Carli Ballola’s program notes. “Ninetta, a girl from a good, but poor family has to work as a servant in a rich tenant farmer’s home. She is unjustly accused of stealing and then selling a silver spoon. The mistake is compounded by the hated Podestà (the chief magistrate) who persecutes the girl for rejecting his amorous advances. Ninetta really has sold, to an old-clothed man, a silver spoon given to her by her father, an army deserter in need of money. Tried and condemned to death, Ninetta is saved at the last minute by the chance discovery of the missing spoon in the magpie’s nest.”

In an interview with Il Resto Del Carlino,on August 10, 2007, Michieletto explained to writer Maria Rita Tonti, his reasons for his directorial choices. “Because La Gazza, a complex opera, belongs to the semiserio genre which mixes happy moments with dramatic ones, I thought to find a non-rhetorical way of telling the story that would give a narrative value to the plot while the libretto would not follow the music in a simple and light manner.” He said the idea came to him while reflecting on the Alice In Wonderland fable in which Alice follows the rabbit without asking any questons and finds herself involuntarily involved in a dramatically fearful situation, a necessary ingredient in all fairy tales. In the story’s most terrible moment when the Queen of Hearts is going to kill her, Alice wakes up from the nightmare. The director used this idea, turning the magpie into the personification of a young girl. As the girl falls asleep, she begins to dream, becoming the protagonist in a trip that initially seems wondrous and playful. She finds, however, she is the one blamed for stealing the cutlery and is about to be shot when she suddenly wakes up bringing the opera to an end. What is not imaginary is that Rossini and librettist, Giovanni Gherardini based their work on a true incident where a young girl was put to death for stealing cutlery.

It is Michieletto’s approach to the story that fascinated the Italians and ultimately one they believed in wholeheartedly. The result was they gave the director, in May of 2008, the Franco Abbiati prize for his work at the festival. The prize, named in memory of one of Italy’s greatest music critics, is one of the most prestigious in Italian music circles. Then the French magazine, Diapason, awarded the DVD of La Gazza Ladra, the Diapason d’or as the best disc for the months of July-August.


Rossini Opera Festival

Fortunately, we now have the DVD of ROF’s La Gazza Ladra which opera lovers can judge the merits for themselves. As for the physical production, Fantin, costume designer Carla Teti, and light designer Mark Truebridge compliment Michieletto’s emphasis on the darker side of the opera. The deep reds that accompany the stark white lighting are also reflected in the costumes. In addition to the black and drab brown costumes for Michele Pertusi’s malevolent Podestà and Alex Esposito’s Fernando, the eerie black robes of the judges indicated no mercy for Ninetta’s plight. Michieletto starts out with Sandhya Nagaraja playing a game with small white cylinders that set designer Fantin used throughout the opera, changing their size and stage position to accentuate the opera’s dramatic moments. In the opening scene of Act Two, they resembled sewer pipes sopping in water, representing Ninetta’s jail where Giannetto, her intended, Pippo, her trusted friend and the licentious Podestà come to visit her. No doubt, it is Michieletto’s stark point of view which caused all the critical dissension.

But it is the wonderful musical preparation and execution that makes this performance shine. Lü Jia’s conducting and devotion to his singers fit ROF’s dedication to Rossini’s operas like a glove to hand. Mariola Cantarero’s expressed Ninetta’s nobility and pathos through stellar vocal means. Michele Pertusi’s interpretation might have struck some as too thuggish but his vocal prowess made the role complete. Alex Esposito committed acting and singing as Ninetta’s devoted father was a perfect counterpoint to Pertusi’s bully. These two performers gave the opera its emotional truth. Dmitry Korchak’s Giannetto showed his character’s concern for his beloved, but the upper voice lacked the necesary security. At times, Manuela Custer’s middle voice proved clumsy, but in the second act duet, “E ben, per mia memoria,” her Pippo melded beautifully with Cantarero’s Ninetta. Paolo Bordogna as Fabrizio, Kleopatra Papatheologou as Lucia, Stefan Cifoletti as Isacco and Cosimo Panozzo as Antonio rounded out the cast giving first class interpretations to their smaller roles showing the depth of this production’s musicality.

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Berg, Lulu

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By James L. Zychowicz

Reprinted with permission from Seen and Heard – Music Web’s Live Opera, Concert and Recital Reviews.

Soloists, Chorus and Orchestra of Lyric Opera of Chicago, Sir Andrew Davis (conductor) Civic Opera House, Chicago 22.11.2008 (JLZ)

Production:

Director: Paul Curran
Set Design: Kevin Knight
Lighting: David Jacques

Cast:

Animal Tamer/Athlete: Jan Buchwald
Alwa: William Burden
Dr. Schön/Jack the Ripper: Wolfgang Schöne
Lulu: Marlis Petersen
Painter/Sailor: Scott Ramsay
Professor of Medicine/Professor: Craig Irvin
Schigolch: Thomas Hammons
Prince/Manservant/Marquis: Rodel Rosel
Wardrobe Mistress/Schoolboy: Buffy Baggott
Countess Geschwitz: Jill Grove
Journalist: Corey Crider

Lyric Opera of Chicago’s new production of Alban Berg’s Lulu is compelling musically, dramatically and visually. With its fine cast which includes Marlis Petersen, one of the outstanding musicians currently portraying the title role, the roles are covered well, and the staging allows them to interact with each other convincingly. The production itself is worthy of note for the innovative tack which Kevin Knight has taken from film.

Not only did Knight allow the character of Lulu to resemble Louise Brooks, who created the role in Pabst’s famous film, Pandora’s Box, but he also used the idea of film to frame each act, from the tableaux which opened them, to the scrimmed “Ende” at the conclusion of the work. In approaching the design in this way, Knight integrated into the production the musical sequence in the second act, for which Berg recommended using film to show the trial, imprisonment, and escape of Lulu, prior to her return to Alwa. The film was no longer anomalous, but part of the visual language of this production. Thus, other elements from film merged into the design to fine effect. With the Louise-Brooks wig of medium-length black hair that seemingly remains perpetually in place, Petersen resembled the image of Lulu as immortalized on film, and the film itself came to life in this production. With the visual element unifying the performance and with the fine leadership that Sir Andrew Davis has given it, this production makes an important work accessible to a wider audience.

As Lulu, Marlis Petersen sang the role easily and convincingly. She has captured the details of the part excellently, with a facility that other singers may not have. If her voice was sometimes difficult to hear, this was the result of the sometimes thick textures in the score, which was also well executed by the orchestra. Petersen’s phrasing made the sometimes angular lines that Berg used to depict his character, emerge with the remarkable clarity otherwise. Her diction, the German of a native speaker, contributed to her success in a role which she has also played in Vienna and other cities. And as incongruous as it may seem, Petersen’s previous role at Lyric was as Adele in the 2006-2007 season, an equally memorable portrayal though in many ways removed from the multidimensional Lulu of Berg’s opera. That aside, the freshness and engaging tone that Petersen brought to Adele actually enlivened her depiction of Lulu. The vocal presence was useful in defining her character, with the passages of Sprechstimme executed beautifully. Likewise, Petersen’s speaking voice lent authority to the limited passages of spoken dialogue at critical points in the drama.


The entire cast formed a tight ensemble in this almost seamless production. Jill Grove chracterised Countess Geschwitz convincingly, with her fatal attraction to Lulu clearly apparent and absent of any affectation. In bringing to life the sometimes surrealistic character of Geschwitz, Grove brought to it the kind of expression that she used to create the role of the Nurse in last season’s production of Strauss’s Frau ohne Schatten. Grove worked very well with Petersen, especially in the second act, where the chemistry between the two must occur almost instantaneously, and the two reacted smoothly with Wolfgang Schöne, who played Dr. Schöne, the tragic victim of Lulu’s acknowledged sincere love.

As Schön, Wolfgang Schöne re-created for this Lyric production a role that has been a mainstay of his career. He delivered with the same facility as Petersen, with his baritone timbre working clearly through the the entire score. Physically, he brought his character to life with appropriate body language and gestures denoting the old man, especially in the second act, where Dr. Schön has become as obsessive about Lulu’s other lovers as Lulu herself was in attracting them. The monologue in which Schön wields the pistol that will seal his own fate was a fine part of the act, a point in this production in which the musical and theatrical pitch was appropriately heightened.

Among the rest of the cast, the American tenor William Burden was three-dimensional as Alwa. No mere pawn of Lulu, Burden gave his part all of the nuance that Wedekind wrote into the character, and his delivery was impeccable. Burden’s voice fits Alwa’s music nicely, and he made the sometimes demanding lines seem effortless. Known for various roles in Britten’s operas, Burden deserves attention for his solid approach to the character of Alwa. At the end of the second act, the scene where Alwa makes love to Lulu at the place where his father, Dr. Schön, died, his evocation of Lulu as an almost ideal beauty was memorable for its soaring line and the seamless handling of Berg’s music.

Thomas Hammons made the mysterious character of Schigolch seem, at times, as much an earth-spirit as Lulu herself, since he, of all the people in opera, seems to have known her long before the action begins. His bass-baritone voice lent appropriate weight to the role, which includes some lines that must rise well above the stave. In the same way, Jan Buchwald gave a fine reading to the dual roles of Animal Tamer and Athlete. In the former role. Buchwald was immediately effective in the prologue, which started in this production on the main floor of the theatre, before he moved to the stage and took the audience into the action of the opera. Even though Buchwald was sometimes difficult to hear form that position, once again this seemed to be because he was struggling against orchestral energy.

Of all the principals, the tenor Scott Ramsay seemed less engaged in the role of the painter, the character whose interest in Lulu sparks the chain of tragic deaths that are crucial to the plot. From the musical level, he gave a fine reading, but it may be that the blocking in this production needs to engage the Painter more effectively to make his part work as well as the others do. Lulu is a difficult score that requires a deft hand at the dramaturgy, something that emerged at times in the various parts which Rodell Rosel had – the humorous touches he gave to the part of the manservant helped to play up Lulu’s presence as a force of nature within her own household. His characterization of the Marquis too gave a nice pointedness to that role, which is crucial to Lulu’s fateful decisions.

Yet it is the principals who must resolve the drama in the final act, with Petersen, Grove, and Burden bringing the work to its dénouement. As Jack the Ripper, Schöne’s determination is menacing from his first entrance. The tragic ending is cinematic in the best sense, and delivers the appropriate catharsis to this highly charged work.

One of the masterpieces of twentieth-century opera, Berg’s Lulu becomes even more compelling in Lyric’s new production. Strong theater on its own merits, the musical content serves the work equally well. Sir Andrew Davis gave remarkable shape to the lines of Berg’s score, such that the dissonant idiom Berg chose for this work was thoroughly accessible, and the musical structures readily perceivable. It is encouraging to see the audiences that Lyric Opera can attract to its productions, and it is even more admirable when a work like Lulu can attract full houses. Lyric Opera of Chicago is to be commended not only for bringing this powerful opera back for new audiences, but also for creating a fine production which enhanced the outstanding execution of the music to great effect.

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Gershwin, Porgy and Bess

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By James L. Zychowicz

Reprinted with permission from Seen and Heard – Music Web’s Live Opera, Concert and Recital Reviews.

Soloists, Chorus and Orchestra of Lyric Opera of Chicago, John DeMain (conductor) Civic Opera House, Chicago 29.11.2008 (JLZ)

Production:

Director – Francesca Zambello
Set Design – Peter J. Davison
Costumes – Paul Tazewell
Lighting – Mark McCullough
Choreography and Association Stage Director – Denni Sayers

Cast:

Porgy – Gordon Hawkins
Bess – Morenike Radayoni
Crown – Lester Lynch
Clara – Laquita Mitchell
Sporting Life – Jermaine Smith
Jake – Eric Greene
Serena – Jonita Lattimore
Robbins – Barron Coleman
Maria – Maretta Simpson

After a number of years, George Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess is back on the stage of Lyric Opera of Chicago in a production rented from Washington National Opera (Washington, D.C.) and designed by Francesca Zambello. This conception sets the work forward in time from being contemporaneous with its creation in the mid-1930s onward to the 1950s, as apparent from the costumes and, to a degree, from the kinds of interactions depicted between the black community and the white police and legal figures. The familiar story of the sometime jaded cripple Porgy falling in love with Bess, a woman of questionable virtue, who was formerly with Crown. Going into hiding after killing Seren’s husband, Crown fails to take Bess along, and she finds refuge with Porgy. While Porgy and Bess grow to love each other, Crown still feels as if Bess is his property, and the tension mounts until Porgy murders him. Yet when Porgy is taken away for questioning, Bess takes off for New York with Sporting Life, a low-life who will, no doubt lead her into more problems. The end of the work finds Porgy taking off to find Bess, and even in this fine production, his prospects of success seem poor, despite’s Porgy’s resilience.

Peter J. Davison’s vivid design works well in and serves the score nicely by allowing for appropriate spaces in which the can occur: this definitely helps to enhance those aspects of the work which are closer to musical theater than conventional opera. Without splitting hairs over distinctions between opera and musicals, the dramatic elements of Porgy and Bess can sometimes isolate the music from the action, and this is implicit in the division of the work into two parts, the first consisting of the overture, first act, and the first two scenes of the second act; the second comprising the last two scenes of Act II and the entire third act. This structure reinforces the tragic rape of Bess on Kittiwah Island and makes the production resemble more a traditional Broadway music, which usual divides into two acts.

As to the production itself, it is a vivid visualization on stage of Catfish Row as a two-story tenement, with doors and stairs accessible for various entrances and exits. It helps to define the community group whose spiritual leader is Maria, performed here by the Lyric veteran Marietta Simpson. (Simpson was part of the memorable production of Blitzstein’s Regina several years ago.) In Porgy and Bess Simpson demonstrated her always fine singing once again, but the drama also allowed audiences to appreciate her acting ability. A sympathetic character, he was most animated during the scene in which she confronts Sporting Life. Likewise, Jonita Lattimore, a voice familiar to Chicago audiences, not only for her work at Lyric, but also at other venues She brought the character of Serena to life convincingly, with her lament “My Man’s Gone Now” at the end of the first act which was particularly moving. Her vocal inflection brought out the emotional pitch of the number, which remains in this production more convincing than the somewhat obligatory spiritual-inspired chorus “Leavin’ for the Promised Land” which ends the act. “Oh, Doctor Jesus” at the end of the second act was, in Lattimore’s hands, memorable.


Of the principals, Gordon Hawkins is a seasoned Porgy, who has performed the role in various places, including the Bregenz Festival (under the direction of Götz Friedrich) and also in the premiere of Zambello’s staging at Washington National Opera. He knows the role well, and it was welcome to hear his nuanced “I Got Plenty o’ Nuttin’” His duet with Bess, here sung by Morenike Fadayomi, “Bess, You Is My Woman Now” was intimate and resonant. In fact, both performers contributed a welcome freshness this familiar number, with their lines intersecting nicely as they celebrated the newfound love. As Porgy, Hawkins navigated the stage well, since the production substitutes a crutch for the cart scripted for the character, and this modification gave him some extra mobility. This detail necessitated adjusting the text, but also added a prop to the staging, which contributed to the crucial scene in which Porgy battles Crown to the death. (While destroyed in the fight, it is remarkable that a replacement crutch appears in the next scene.)

Fadayomi is an equally experienced Bess, who also worked with Hawkins at Washington National Opera. A fine actress on stage, she allowed the sometimes brazen Bess to be a bit understated; her body language and eye contract showed the audience the sometimes difficult relationship she has with the community at Catfish Row. Her voice was sometimes lost in the enthusiasm of this production, but her reprise of Clara’s “Summertime” demonstrated her singing beauitfully. In this production, Bess the lapsed sinner seems doomed to repeat her mistakes, a touch that was convincing enough for some audience members to voice their disappointment as they were leaving the theater.

As Crown, the villain of the work. Lester Lynch made his character believable, and his resonant bass voice ranged through the hall. Audience members who attend later performances this season will find Lynch in the title role of Porgy, and they should enjoy his performance in a completely different. His menacing portrayal of Crown gave the necessary angry edge to the character, an element underscored by the physicality Lynch brings to the part. Likewise, Jermaine Smith was a three-dimensional Sporting Life, whose trouble-loving bent always drew in those near him. The penultimate number in the first half of this production “It Ain’t Necessarily So,” involved some fine interaction between Smith and the chorus. By bending of pitches and rhythms, he added an extra dimension to the sometimes familiar music. In the end, his persona as a drug dealer is strong enough to win Bess away from Catfish Row, even though his more memorable music was in the first part of the show. Other roles were nicely cast, with Laquita Mitchell singing of Clara — her finely pitched “Summertime” opening the first act. Depicting her husband Jake, Erice Greene demonstrated a polished, expressive voice that would be welcome in other roles.

For the chorus, some of the numbers worked well, with the chordal harmony moving with studied precision. In the contrapuntal passages however, the textures became, ambiguous at times, with words and phrases sometimes blurring until the texture resolved in a single word or syllable. The production was well served with the surcaps projected above the stage, so that the audience could follow the text throughout the performance. The chorus did well in the extended opening scene, in which Gershwin creates the atmosphere of Catfish Row. A kind of reflection of Puccini’s La bohème, their number helps to introduce the characters and staging, and the close attention of the audience was a tribute to Zambello’s success in this area. The presentation of the work in two parts, puts across a different aesthetic than when Porgy and Bess is present in three acts. Then, the second act ends with the plight of Porgy in question while in the present production, the emphasis shifts more strongly to Bess. This is not precisely in the score, but modern productions sometimes involve such shifts in dramatic structure.

At some point however questions do arise, perhaps as a result of the updating that is part of the production. Does Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess perpetuate stereotypes in paying undue attention to the references to cocaine and other drugs, sexual promiscuity, and dialect? At another level, is it the fault of the production if the portrayal of Bess seems so wayward that Porgy would be foolish even to think of following her to New York? Or is it best to consider Porgy and Bess as the product of its times, with affinities to some of the naturalistic dramas popular at the time? Such considerations point to understandings of the work as a whole, which differs from the appreciation of some of its popular numbers. Taken out of context, pieces like “I Got Plenty o’ Nuttin’” and others convey different meanings when heard apart from the entire score.Perhaps it is a measure of the success of this production that it raises questions that are important for understanding the place of these well-known piece of musical theater within American culture. With Zambello’s new production and Lyric’s fine presentation of it, audiences have an excellent opportunity to answer the questions for themselves.

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